Questions and Answers
Question #42


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Questions and Answers


Questions and Answers

 

Question #42

This question is usually composed of two parts, as follows:

(1) What are the principal/essential references that one should consult in order to gain an appreciation of the theoretical bases and ramifications of the NLD/White Matter model?

(2) Have investigators other than you and your colleagues tested aspects of, and deductions from, the model and/or employed it to explicate findings regarding the neuropsychological and psychosocial consequences of various types of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction?


Answer:

(1) This answer is divided into two sections: (a) theoretical formulations; (b) studies and reviews (arranged in chronological order) that should contribute to an understanding of the development and current status of the NLD model.

(a) Theoretical formulations

The principal theoretical basis for the NLD/White Matter Model arose from the seminal contribution of Goldberg and Costa (1981):

Goldberg, E., & Costa, L. (1981). Hemispheric differences in the acquisition and use of descriptive systems. Brain and Language, 14, 144-173.



A "developmental" version of the Goldberg and Costa model that addresses a range of central processing deficits in children:

Rourke, B. P. (1982). Central processing deficiencies in children: Toward a developmental neuropsychological model. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 4, 1-18.

Note: An understanding of this model is essential for the appreciation of the model development outlined just below.



Formulations of the NLD/White Matter model, in historical order, are as follows:

Rourke, B. P. (1987). Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: The final common pathway of white-matter disease/dysfunction? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1, 209-234.

Rourke, B. P. (1988). The syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Developmental manifestations in neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2, 293-330.

Rourke, B. P. (1989). Nonverbal learning disabilities: The syndrome and the model. New York: Guilford Press.

Rourke, B. P. (1995). Introduction and overview: The NLD/white matter model. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 1-26). New York: Guilford Press.

Rourke, B. P., van der Vlugt, H., & Rourke, S. B. (2002). Practice of child-clinical neuropsychology: An introduction. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Note: The most up-to-date version of this model is contained in Chapter 4 of Rourke et al. (2002).



(b) Studies and reviews (arranged in chronological order) that should contribute to an understanding of the development and current status of the NLD model

Rourke, B. P., Young, G. C., & Flewelling, R. W. (1971). The relationships between WISC verbal-performance discrepancies and selected verbal, auditory-perceptual, visual-perceptual, and problem-solving abilities in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 475-479.

Rourke, B. P., & Telegdy, G. A. (1971). Lateralizing significance of WISC verbal-performance discrepancies for older children with learning disabilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 33, 875-883.

Rourke, B. P., Dietrich, D. M., & Young, G. C. (1973). Significance of WISC verbal-performance discrepancies for younger children with learning disabilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 36, 275-282.

Rourke, B. P., Yanni, D. W., MacDonald, G. W., & Young, G. C. (1973). Neuropsychological significance of lateralized deficits on the Grooved Pegboard Test for older children with learning disabilities. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 128-134.

Myklebust, H. R. (1975). Nonverbal learning disabilities: Assessment and intervention. In H. R. Myklebust (Ed.), Progress in learning disabilities (Vol. 3, pp. 85-121). New York: Grune & Stratton.

Rourke, B. P. (1975). Brain-behavior relationships in children with learning disabilities: A research program. American Psychologist, 30, 911-920.

Rourke, B. P., & Finlayson, M. A. J. (1975). Neuropsychological significance of variations in patterns of performance on the Trail Making Test for older children with learning disabilities. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 412-421.

Rourke, B. P. (1978). Reading, spelling, arithmetic disabilities: A neuropsychologic perspective. In H. R. Myklebust (Ed.), Progress in learning disabilities (Vol. 4, pp. 97-120). New York: Grune & Stratton.

Rourke, B. P., & Finlayson, M. A. J. (1978). Neuropsychological significance of variations in patterns of academic performance: Verbal and visual-spatial abilities. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 121-133.

Rourke, B. P., & Strang, J. D. (1978). Neuropsychological significance of variations in patterns of academic performance: Motor, psychomotor, and tactile-perceptual abilities. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 3, 62-66.

Porter, J. E., & Rourke, B. P. (1985). Socioemotional functioning of learning-disabled children: A subtypal analysis of personality patterns. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Neuropsychology of learning disabilities: Essentials of subtype analysis (pp. 257-280). New York: Guilford Press.

Strang, J. D., & Rourke, B. P. (1985). Adaptive behavior of children who exhibit specific arithmetic disabilities and associated neuropsychological abilities and deficits. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Neuropsychology of learning disabilities: Essentials of subtype analysis (pp. 303-328). New York: Guilford Press.

Rourke, B. P., Young, G. C., Strang, J. D., & Russell, D. L. (1986). Adult outcomes of central processing deficiencies in childhood. In I. Grant & K. M. Adams (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment in neuropsychiatric disorders: Clinical methods and empirical findings (pp. 244-267). New York: Oxford University Press.

Fletcher, J. M., & Copeland, D. R. (1988). Neurobehavioral effects of central nervous system prophylactic treatment of cancer in children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10, 495-537.

Rourke, B. P. (1988). Socio-emotional disturbances of learning-disabled children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 801-810.

Ozols, E. J., & Rourke, B. P. (1988). Characteristics of young learning-disabled children classified according to patterns of academic achievement: Auditory-perceptual and visual-perceptual abilities. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 44-52.

Fletcher, J. M. (1989). Nonverbal learning disabilities and suicide: Classification leads to prevention. Journal of Learning Disabilties, 22, 176, 179.

Rourke, B. P., Young, G. C., & Leenaars, A. (1989). A childhood learning disability that predisposes those afflicted to adolescent and adult depression and suicide risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 169-175.

Stelmack, R. M., & Miles, J. (1990). The effect of picture priming on event-related potentials of normal and disabled readers during a word recognition memory task. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 887-903.

Brandys, C. F., & Rourke, B. P. (1991). Differential memory capacities in reading- and arithmetic-disabled children. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Neuropsychological validation of learning disability subtypes (pp. 73-96). New York: Guilford Press.

Casey, J. E., Rourke, B. P., & Picard, E. M. (1991). Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Age differences in neuropsychological, academic, and socioemotional functioning. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 331-347.

Dool, C. B., Stelmack, R. M., & Rourke, B. P. (1993). Event-related potentials in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 387-398.

Miles, J. E., & Stelmack, R. M. (1993). Reading disability subtypes and the effects of auditory and visual priming on event-related potentials. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 43-64.

Rourke, B. P. (1993). Arithmetic disabilities, specific and otherwise: A neuropsychological perspective. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 214-226.

Harnadek, M. C. S., & Rourke, B. P. (1994). Principal identifying features of the syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities in children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 144-154.

Fuerst, D. R., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Psychosocial functioning of children with learning disabilities at three age levels. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 38-55.

Fuerst, K. B., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). White matter physiology and pathology. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 27-44). New York: Guilford Press.

Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Validityand neuropsychological characterization of Asperger syndrome: Convergence with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1127-1140.

Rourke, B. P., & Fuerst, D. R. (1995). Cognitive processing, academic achievement, and psychosocial functioning: A neuropsychological perspective. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 1, pp. 391-423). New York: Wiley.

Stelmack, R. M., Rourke, B. P., & van der Vlugt, H. (1995). Intelligence, learning disabilities, and event-related potentials. Developmental Neuropsychology, 11, 445-465.

Rourke, B. P., & Fuerst, D. R. (1996). Psychosocial dimensions of learning disability subtypes. Assessment , 3, 277-290.

Rourke, B. P., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (1996). Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Psycholinguistic assets and deficits. Topics in Language Disorders, 16, 30-44.

Butler, K., Rourke, B. P., Fuerst, D. R., & Fisk, J. L. (1997). A typology of psychosocial functioning in pediatric closed-head injury. Child Neuropsychology, 3, 98-133.

Fisher, N. J., DeLuca, J. W., & Rourke, B. P. (1997). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Halstead Category Test performances of children and adolescents who exhibit the syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 3, 61-70.

Rourke, B. P., & Conway, J. A. (1997). Disabilities of arithmetic and mathematical reasoning: Perspectives from neurology and neuropsychology. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 34-46.

Tsatsanis, K. D., Fuerst, D. R., & Rourke, B. P. (1997). Psychosocial dimensions of learning disabilities: External validation and relationship with age and academic functioning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 490-502.

Rourke, B. P. (2000). Neuropsychological and psychosocial subtyping: A review of investigations within the University of Windsor laboratory. Canadian Psychology, 41, 34-50.

Rourke, B. P., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (2000). Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Asperger syndrome. In A. Klin, F. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 231-253). New York: Guilford Press.

Pelletier, P. M., Ahmad, S. A., & Rourke, B. P. (2001). Classification rules for Basic Phonological Processing Disabilities and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Formulation and external validity. Child Neuropsychology, 7, 84-98.

Rourke, B. P., & Del Dotto, J. E. (2001). Learning disabilities: A neuropsychological perspective. In C. E. Walker & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of clinical child psychology (3rd ed., pp. 576-602). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Casey, J. E., & Rourke, B. P., (2002). Somatosensory perception in children. In S. J. Segalowitz & I. Rapin(Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology, Vol. 8: Child neuropsychology (2nd ed., pp. 385-403). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Rourke, B. P., Ahmad, S. A., Collins, D. W., Hayman-Abello, B. A., Hayman-Abello, S. E., & Warriner, E. M. (2002). Child-clinical/pediatric neuropsychology: Some recent advances. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 309-339.

Collins, D. W., & Rourke, B. P. (2003). Learning-disabled brains: A review of the literature. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 1011-1034.

Tsatsanis, K. D., & Rourke, B. P. (2003). Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Effects on learning. In A. H. Fine & R. Kotkin (Eds,), Therapists guide to learning and attention disorders (pp. 109-145). New York: Academic Press.

Drummond, C. R., Ahmad, S. A., & Rourke, B. P. (2005). Rules for the classification of younger children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Basic Phonological Processing Disabilities. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 171-182.

Rourke, B. P. (2005). Neuropsychology of learning disabilities: Past and future. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 28, 111-114.

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(2) All of the chapters included in Rourke, B. P. (1995) Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations New York: Guilford Press cite a vast array of research that falls within this rubric. There are hundreds of papers and reviews cited in the NLD and Neurological Disease section of this website that can be viewed as involving direct tests and/or extended implications of the NLD/White Matter model in various types of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction. Some examples of these and a few not cited therein are as follows:

Bawden, H, Dooley, J., Buckley, D., Camfield, P. Gordon, K. Riding, M., & Llewellyn, G. (1996). MRI and nonverbal cognitive deficits in children with Neurofibromatosis 1. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18, 784-792.

Brookshire, B., Butler, I. J., Ewing-Cobbs, L., & Fletcher, J. M. (1994). Neuropsychological characteristics of children with Tourette syndrome: Evidence for a nonverbal learning disability? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 289-302.

Brookshire, B. L., Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Landry, S. H., Davidson, K. C., & Francis, D. J. (1995). Specific language deficiencies in children with early onset hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 106-117.

Brouwers, P., van der Vlugt, H, Moss, H., Wolters, P., & Pizzo, P. (1995). White matter changes on CT brain scan are associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with symptomatic HIV disease. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 93-105.

Buono, L. A., Morris, M. K., Morris, R. D., Krawiecki, N., Norris, F. H., Foster, M. A., & Copeland, D. R. (1998). Evidence for the syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in children with brain tumors. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 144-157.

Collette, M. A., Weeks, M., Thompson, S., Gellineua, E., & Grant, S. (1996). Capacity of children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) to organize higher order language as a function of response modality. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 377.

Cornoldi, C., Rigoni, F. Tressoldi, P. E., & Vio, C. (1999). Imagery deficits in nonverbal learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 48-57.

Crowe, S. F., & Hay, D. A. (1990). Neuropsychological dimensions of the fragile X syndrome: Support for a non-dominant hemisphere dysfunction hypothesis. Neuropsychologia, 28, 9-16.

Elkin, T. D., Mulhern, R. M., Reddick, W. E., & Kronenberg, M.E. (1996). Childhood medulloblastoma: White matter volumes and intellect. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 387-388.

Ellis, H. D. (1994). A preliminary study of right-hemisphere cognitive deficits and impaired social judgment among young people with Asperger syndrome. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3, 255-266.

Ellis, H. D., & Gunter, H. L. (1999). Asperger syndrome: A simple matter of white matter? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 192-200.

Fisher, N. J., & DeLuca, J. W. (1997). Verbal learning strategies of adolescents and adults with the syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 3, 192-198.

Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M., Beaver, S. R., Thorstad, K., Brookshire, B. L. Francis, D. J., Davidson, K. C., & Thompson, N. M. (1993). Relationships of cognitive skills and cerebral white matter in hydrocephalic children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 40-41.

Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M. E., Brookshire, B. L., Beaver, S. R., Francis, D. J., Davidson, K. C., Thompson, N. M., & Miner, M. E. (1992). Cerebral white matter and cognition in hydrocephalic children. Archives of Neurology, 49, 818-825.

Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M., Kramer, L. A., Brookshire, B. L., Thorstad, K., Davidson, K. C., Francis, D. J., McCauley, S., & Baumgartner, J. E. (1996). Morphometric evaluation of the hydrocephalic brain: Relationships with cognitive development. Childís Nervous System, 12, 192-199.

Fletcher, J. M., Brookshire, B. L., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M., & Davidson, K. (1995). Early hydrocephalus. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 206-238 ). New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Brookshire, B. L., Landry, S. H., Bohan, T. P., Davidson, K. C., Francis, D. J., Thompson, N. M., & Miner, M. E. (1995). Behavioral adjustment of children with hydrocephalus: Relationships with etiology, neurological, and family status. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 765-781.

Fletcher, J. M., Dennis, M., & Northrup, H. (2000). Hydrocephalus. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 25-46). New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Thompson, N. M., Brookshire, B. L., Bohan, T. P., Landry, S. H., Davidson, K. C., & Miner, M. E. (1992). Verbal and nonverbal skill discrepancies in hydrocephalic children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 593-609.

Fletcher, J. M., McCauley, S., Brandt, M., Bohan, T. P., Kramer, L. A., Francis, D. J., Thorstad, K., & Brookshire, B. L. (1996). Regional brain tissue composition in children with hydrocephalus: Relationships with cognitive development. Archives of Neurology, 53, 549-557

Galway, T. M. & Metsala, J. L. (2011). Social cognition and its relation to psychosocial adjustment in children with nonverbal learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 33-49.

Gourovitch, M. L., Craft, S., Bowton, S. B., Ambrose, P., & Sparta, S. (1994). Interhemispheric transfer in children with early-treated phenylketonuria. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 393-404.

Gross-Tsur, V., Shalev, R. S., Manor, O., & Amir, N. (1995). Developmental right-hemisphere syndrome: Clinical spectrum of the nonverbal learning disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28, 80-86.

Grunau, R. V. E., & Low, M. D. (1987). Cognitive and task-related EEG correlates of arithmetic performance in adolescents. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 9, 563-574.

Holler, K. A., Fennell, E. B., Crosson, B., Boggs, S. R., & Mickle, J. P. (1995). Neuropsychological and adaptive functioning in younger versus older children shunted for early hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 63-73.

Huphries, T., Oram Cardy, J., Worling, D. E., & Peets, K. (2004). Narative comprehension and retelling abilities of children with nonverbal learning disabilities. Brain and Cognition, 56, 77-88.

Jarrold, C., Baddeley A.D., & Hewes, A.K. (1998). Verbal and nonverbal abilities in the Williams syndrome phenotype: Evidence for diverging development trajectories. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 511-523.

Koff, E., Boyle, P., & Pueschel, S. (1977). Perceptual-motor functioning in children with phenylketonuria. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 131, 1084-1087.

Lajiness-O'Neill, R., & Beaulieu, I. (2002). Neuropsychological findings in two children diagnosed with hamartoses: Evidence of a NLD phenotypic profile. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 27-40.

Landry, S. H., Fletcher, J. M., & Denson, S. E. (1993). Longitudinal outcome for low birth weight infants: Effects of intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 205-218.

Litt, J., Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2005). Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: Prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 130-141.

Loveland, K. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Bailey, V. (1990). Nonverbal communication of events in learning-disability subtypes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 433-447.

Mattson, A., J., Sheer, D. E., & Fletcher, J. M. (1992). Electrophysiological evidence of lateralized disturbances in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 707-716.

McKelvey, J. R., Lambert, R., Mottron, L., & Shevell, M.I. (1995). Right-hemisphere dysfunction in Aspergerís syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, 310-314.

Moss, E. M., Wang, P. P., McGinn, D. M., Keating, T. B., Sugama,S., Driscott, D. A., Emanual, B. S., Batshaw, M.L., & Zackai, E. H. (August, 1998). Genetic insights into Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The cognitive and adaptive profiles of patients with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.

North, K. N., Joy, P., Yuille, D., Cocks, N., Mobbs, E., Hutchings, P., McHugh, K., & de Silva, M. (1994). Specific learning disability in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: Significance of MRI abnormalities, Neurology, 44, 878-883.

North, K. N., Riccardi, V., Samango-Sprouse, C., Ferner, R., Moore, B., Legius, E., Ratner, N., & Denckla, M.B. (1997). Cognitive function and academic performance in neurofibromatosis 1: Consensus statement from the NR1 Cognitive Disorder Task Force, Neurology, 48, 1121-1127.

Panos, P.T., Porter, S.S., Panos, A.J., Gaines, R.N., & Erdberg, P.S. (2001). An evaluation of a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum with Rourke's nonverbal learning disorder model. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 16, 507-521.

Ris, M. D. et al. (2007). Taxonicity of nonverbal learning disabilities in spina bifida. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 50-58.

Ris, M.D., & Nortz, M. (2007). Nonverbal learning disorder. In J. Morgan & J. Ricker Eds.). Textbook of Clinical Neuropsychology (pp.346-359).New York: Taylor & Francis.

Rovet, J. F. (1991). Learning disabilities profiles in four endocrine disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 58-59.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., Sorbara, D. L., & Czuchta, D. A. (1991). Thyroid hormone and the developing brain: Psychoeducational characteristics of children with thyroid hormone deficiency. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 79.

Ryan, T. V., Crews, Jr., W. D., Cowan, L., Goering, A. M., & Barth, J. T. (1998). A case of Triple X syndrome manifesting with the syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 225-232.

Semrud-Clikeman, M., Walkowiak, J., & Wilkinson, A. (1010). Neuropsychological differences among children with asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and controls. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 582-600.

Shapiro, E. G., & Krivit, W. (1992). Adrenoleukodystrophy, a white matter degenerative disease of childhood: Neuropsychological characteristics and treatment with bone marrow transplantation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 69-70.

Shapiro, E. G., Lipton, M., & Krivit, W. (1989). Neuropsychological findings in a case of metachromatic leukodystrophy treated with bone marrow transplant. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 21.

Shapiro, E. G., Lipton, M. E., & Krivit, W. (1992). White matter dysfunction and its neuropsychological correlates: A longitudinal study of a case of metachromatic leukodystrophy treated with bone marrow transplant. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 610-624.

Silver, C. H., Elder, W. G., & DeBolt, A. J. (1999). Social skills self-appraisal of children with specific arithmetic disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 15, 117-126.

Steele, D. L., Chisholm, A. K., McGhie,J.D. R., Gardner, R. J. M., Scheffer, I. E., Slater, H. R. & Dawson, G.(2005). Superior verbal ability and nonverbal learning disability in a child with a novel 17p12p13.1 deletion. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 134B, 104-109.

Taylor, H. G., Hack, M., Klein, N., & Schatschneider, C. (1995). Achievement of <750 gm birthweight children with normal cognitive abilities: Evidence for specific learning problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 703-719.

Taylor, H.G., Minich, N., Bangert, B., Filipek, P.A., & Hack, M. (2004). Long-term neuropsychological outcomes of very low birth weight: Associations with early risks for periventricular brain insults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 987-1004.

Taylor, H.G., Minich, N.M., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2004). Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: Neuropsychological findings. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 149-163.

Taylor, H.G., Schatschneider, C., & Minich, N.M. (2000). Longitudinal outcomes of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in school-age children. Neuropsychology, 14, 509-518.

Thompson, N. M., Fletcher, J. M., Chapieski, L., Landry, S. H., Miner, M. E., & Bixby, J. (1991). Cognitive and motor abilities in preschool hydrocephalics. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 245-258.

Tindall, S., Rothermel, R. R., Delamater, A., Pinsky, W., & Klein, M. D. (1999). Neuropsychological abilities of children with cardiac disease treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 15, 101-115.

Tuller, B., Jantzen, K. J., Olvera, D., Steinberg, F., & Kelso, A. S. (2007). The influence of instruction modality on brain activation in teenagers with nonverbal learning disabilities: Two case histories. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 348-369.

Uecker, A., & Nadel, L. (1996). Spatial locations gone awry: Object and spatial memory deficits in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 34(3), 209-223.

Weber, A. M., McKellop, J. M., Gyato, K., Sullivan, T., & D. N. Franz. (1998). Metachromatic leukodystrophy and nonverbal learning disability: Neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings in heterozygosity and pseudodeficiecy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4, 42.

White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1992). Neuropsychological and socio-emotional correlates of specific-arithmetic disability. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 7, 1-16.

Williams, J. K., Richman, L., & Yarbrough, D. (1991). A comparison of memory and attention in Turner syndrome and learning disability. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 16, 585-593.

Woods, S.P., Weinborn, M., Ball, J.D., Tiller-Nevin, S., & Pickett, T.C. (2000). Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL): An identical twin case study illustration of white matter dysfunction and nonverbal learning disability (NLD). Child Neuropsychology, 6, 274-285.

Yeates, K. O., Harris, J., Kiefel, J., Lassiter, K., Loss, N., & Enrile, B. (1996). Narrative discourse and prose memory in children with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 330.

Yeates, K. O., Loss, N., Colvin, A. N., & Enrile, B. G. (2003). Do children with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus display nonverbal learning disabilities? An empirical approach to classification. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 653-662.

Zinkstok,J., & van Amelsvoort,T. (2005). Neuropsychological profile and neuroimaging in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review. Child Neuropsychology, 11, 21-37.


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