NLD and Neurological Disease

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List of books, etc... List of journal articles dealing with NLD
NLD Content and Dynamics NLD and Neurological Disease
Popular Misconceptions About NLD Questions and Answers


An Approach to the Characterization of Neurological Disorders

 

To place the NLD phenotype within the context of pediatric neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction, it is important to consider one systematic view of the neuropsychology of neurological disease, namely, the "white matter" model (Rourke, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1995).

This model constitutes an attempt to capture and explain the syndrome of NLD in those types of neurological disease wherein this behavioral phenotype is, to a greater or lesser extent, evident. The principal working hypothesis of this model is that the behavioural phenotype of NLD will be manifest to the extent that white matter (long myelinated fibers) in the brain are underdeveloped, damaged, or dysfunctional (Rourke, 1995). In the case of callosal agenesis, of course, the absence of a large number of white matter tracts is obvious (Smith & Rourke, 1995). In other diseases mentioned herein, the evidence of white matter disturbance has only recently been discovered (e.g., see Ellis & Gunter, 1999). As we proceed, further evidence along these lines will be presented.

The hierarchy of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction spread herein is an attempt to structure this view for the reader. First, some notes regarding the hierarchy:

(a) NLD as the "final common pathway" of white matter disease/dysfunction.

This phrase, "final common pathway" was first used with reference to NLD in Rourke (1987). This usage was meant to suggest that NLD was not thought to be a cause or a mediating variable in some types of neurological disease and disorder. Rather, it was meant to denote that some types of neurological disease and disorder, as outlined in the following hierarchy, appeared to have one common set of characteristics of their phenotype (i.e., the content of the NLD syndrome). Implied was the notion that these disorders would have other phenotypical characteristics in addition to the set of neuropsychological assets and deficits that constitute the NLD syndrome.

It should be clear that this characterization of the content of NLD as a phenotype does not speak to the issues of developmental dynamics (causes and effects) that may transpire in these forms of neuropathology. Indeed, specific investigations of the developmental dynamics that transpire in each of them would be expected to yield interesting information regarding behavioural cause-and-effect relationships therein. In tandem with investigations of the behavioural dimensions of the dynamics in these diseases, it would be desirable to test the tenets of the white matter model (Rourke, 1989, 1995) in each of them.

In this exercise, the following would be expected to arise from the investigation of these disorders: (1) the NLD content of the phenotypes would be virtually identical, even though other characteristics of the phenotype of each disorder may vary widely; (2) the developmental dynamics would be similar, but by no means uniform; and (3) the role of the type and degree of white matter maldevelopment, dysfunction, and/or destruction would yield quite different neurodevelopmental dynamics and trajectories.

Viewing all of this within the context of the testing of the developmental tenets of the white matter model would also be expected to yield important information with respect to the neuropsychological consequences of perturbations in white matter. For example, the model would suggest that one would expect to see some significant differences in neuropsychological outcome in children whose disease affected white matter development and function during early uterine versus neonatal/very early infancy versus late infancy/early childhood developmental epochs.

(b) These forms of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction are arranged in terms of a hierarchy. The levels within this hierarchy denote decreasing phenotypic similarity to the set of neuropsychological assets and deficits that constitute the manifestations of the NLD syndrome, as follows:

Level 1: virtually all of the NLD assets and deficits are manifest.

Level 2: a considerable majority of the NLD assets and deficits are evident.

Level 3: fairly clear evidence of NLD: many of the NLD assets and deficits are manifested by a significant subset of children with these disorders.

Level 4: research evidence is ambiguous with respect to the phenotype of NLD in these disorders.

These diseases are being examined from the perspective of the NLD/White Matter model (Rourke, 1989, 1995) in our own and a number of other laboratories. (The interested reader may wish to consult Thatcher [1994, 1997], Fuerst and Rourke [1995], Tsatsanis and Rourke [1995a], and Ellis and Gunter [1999] for some implications and ramifications of white matter disease, disorder, and dysfunction, especially with regard to the hypothesized etiology of the NLD syndrome. A selective bibliograhy on white matter physiology is added at the end of this section.

Notes:

(a) It is very probable that this hierarchy will change somewhat as more is known about the neuropsychological manifestations of the diseases in question.

(b) It is likely that other forms of neurological disease, disorder, and dysfunction will be added to this hierarchy.

(c) It would appear highly probable that further advances in neuroimaging of white matter functioning (e.g., Fletcher et al., 1992), neuropathological findings regarding white matter perturbations, and other advances in the specification of the developmental and functional neuroanatomy of myelination (see Fuerst & Rourke, 1995) will throw considerable light upon the underpinnings of this NLD hierarchy.

As investigators pursue the clarification of the many dimensions of this question, the hierarchy originally proposed (Tsatsanis & Rourke, 1995) has changed in some significant ways. The following is our current characterization of this system.

LEVEL 1

Callosal Agenesis (Uncomplicated)

Brown, W. S., Paul, L. K., Symington, M., & Dietrich, R. (2005). Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum. Neuropsychologia, 43, 906-916.

Casey, J. E., Del Dotto, J. E., & Rourke, B. P. (1990). An empirical investigation of the NLD syndrome in a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 29.

Dennis, M. (1976). Impaired sensory and motor differentiation with corpus callosum agenesis: A lack of callosal inhibition during ontogeny? Neuropsychologia, 14, 455-469.

Dennis, M. (1981). Language in a congenitally acallosal brain. Brain and Language, 12, 33-53.

Gravel, C., Sasseville, R., & Hawkes, R. (1990a). Maturation of the corpus callosum of the rat: I. Influence of thyroid hormones on the topography of callosal projections. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 291, 128-146.

Panos, P. T., Porter, S. S., Panos, A. J., Gaines, R. N., & Erdberg, P. S. (2001). An evaluation of a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum with Rourke’s nonverbal learning disorder model. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 16, 507-521.

Rourke, B. P. (1987). Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: The final common pathway of white-matter disease/dysfunction? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1, 209-234.

Smith, L. A., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Callosal agenesis. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 45-92). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Asperger Syndrome

Berthier, M. L. (1994) Corticollosal anomalies in Asperger’s syndrome. American Journal of Radiology, 8, 519-527.

Berthier, M. L., Bayes, A., & Tolosa, E. S. (1993). Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with concurrent Tourette’s disorder and Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 633-639.

Bloemen, O. J. et al. (2010). White matter integrity in Asperger syndrome: A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study in adults. Autism Research, 3, 203-213.

Brumback, R. A., Harper, C. R., & Weinberg, W. A. (1996). Nonverbal learning disabilities, Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder: Should we care? Journal of Child Neurology, 11, 427-429.

Ehlers, S., Nyden, A., Gillberg, C., Dahlgren-Sandberg, A., Dahlgren, S.-O., Hjelmquist, E., & Oden, A. (1997). Asperger syndrome, autism, and attention disorders: A comparative study of the cognitive profiles of 120 children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 207-217.

Ellis, H. D. (1994). A preliminary study of right-hemisphere cognitive deficits and impaired social judgment among young people with Asperger syndrome. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3, 255-266.

Ellis, H.D. & Leafhead, K.M. (1996). Raymond: A study of an adult with Asperger Syndrome. In P.W. Halligan & J.C. Marshall (Eds.), Method in madness: Case studies in neuropsychiatry ( pp. 79-92). London: Psychology Press.

Ellis, H. D., & Gunter, H. L. (1999). Asperger syndrome: A simple matter of white matter? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 192-200.

Ghaziuddin, M., Weidmer-Mikhail, E., & Ghaziuddin, N. (1998). Comorbidity of Asperger syndrome: A preliminary report. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 279-283

Gold, R., & Faust, M. (2010). Right hemisphere dysfunction and metaphor comprehension in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 800-811.

Gold, R., Faust, M., & Goldstein, A. (2010). Semantic integration during metaphor comprehension in Asperger syndrome. Brain and Language, 113, 124-134.

Gunter, H. L., Ghaziuddin, M., & Ellis, H. D. (2002). Asperger syndrome: Tests of right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 263-281.

Klin, A., Sparrow, S. S., Volkmar, F., Cicchetti, D. V., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Asperger syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 93-118). New York: Guilford Press.

Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Validity and neuropsychological characterization of Asperger syndrome: Convergence with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1127-1140.

Lincoln, A. et al. (1998). Neurobiology of Asperger syndrome: Seven case studies and quantitative magnetic responance imaging findings. In E. Schopler, G. B. Mesibov, & L. J. Kunce (Eds.), Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism? (pp.145-160). New York, Plenum.

McKelvey, J. R., Lambert, R., Mottron, L., & Shevell, M.I. (1995). Right-hemisphere dysfunction in Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, 310-314.

Molina, J. L., Ruata, J. M., & Soler, E. P. (1986). Is there a right-hemisphere dysfunction in Asperger’s syndrome? British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 745-746.

Nass, R., & Gutman, R. (1997). Boys with Asperger’s disorder, exceptional verbal intelligence, tics, and clumsiness. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 39, 691-695.

Rourke, B. P., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (2000). Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Asperger syndrome. In A. Klin, F. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 231-253). New York: Guilford Press.

Semrud-Clikeman, M., Walkowiak, J., & Wilkinson, A. (1010). Neuropsychological differences among children with asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and controls. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 582-600.

Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Asperger's syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities syndrome: Developmental and clinical aspects. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 41.

Stevens, D. E., & Moffitt, T. E. (1988). Neuropsychological profile of an Asperger's syndrome case with exceptional calculating ability. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 2, 228-238.

Szatmari, P., Tuff, L., Finlayson, M. A. J., & Bartolucci, G. (1990). Asperger's syndrome and autism: Neurocognitive aspects. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychatry, 29, 130-136.

Tsatsanis, K.D. (2003). Outcome research in Asperger syndrome and autism. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12(1), 47-63.

Tsatsanis, K.D. (2004). Heterogeneity in learning style in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(4), 260-270.

Tsatsanis, K.D., Foley, C., & Donehower, C. (2004). Contemporary outcome research and programming guidelines for Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(4), 249-259.

Volkmar, F. R., & Cohen, D. J. (1991). Nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatry, 2, 1-12.

Witt, J. N. (1996). Diagnostic issues in the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral assessment of a 12-year-old boy seen following epilepsy surgery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 465-466.

 

Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22q11.2 Microdeletion)

Antshel, M., AbdulSabur, N., Roizen, N., et al. (2005). Sex differences in cognitive functioning in velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Developmental Neuropsychology, 28 (3), 849-869.

Anshel, K.M., Fremont, W., Shprintzen, R., Roizen, N., & Kates, W.R. (2005). Brain: behavior associations in velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome). American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 138B (1): 109.

Antshel, K.M., Kates, W.R., Roizen, N., Fremont, W., & Shprintzen, R.J. (2005). 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Genetics, neuroanatomy and cognitive/behavioral features. Child Neuropsychology, 11 (1): 5-19.

Bearden, C. E., Woodin, M. F., Wang., P. P., Moss, E., McDonald-McGinn, D., Zackai, E., Emannuel, B., & Cannon, T. D. (2001). The neurocognitive phenotype of the 22Q11.2 deletion syndrome: Selective deficit in visual-spatial memory. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 447-464.

D'Antonio, L.L., Scherer, N.J., Miller, L.L., Kalbfleisch, J.H., & Bartley, J.A. (2001). Analysis of speech characteristics in children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) and children with phenotypic overlap without VCFS. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 38 (5): 455-467.

De Smedt, B., Swillen, A., Ghesquiere, P., Devriendt, K., & Fryns, J.P. (2003). Pre-academic and early academic achievement in children with velocardiofacial syndrome (del22q11.2) of borderline or normal intelligence. Genetic Counseling, 14 (1): 15-29.

Fuerst, K. B., Dool, C. B., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Velocardiofacial syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 119-137). New York: Guilford Press.

Gerdes, M., Solot, C., Wang, P.P., Moss, E., LaRossa, D., Randall, P., Goldmuntz, E., Clark, B.J., Driscoll, D.A., Jawad, A., Emanuel, B.S., McDonald-McGinn, D.M., Batshaw, M.L., & Zackai, E.H. (1999). Cognitive and behavior profile of preschool children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 85 (2): 127-133.

Golding-Kushner, K. J., Weller, G., & Shprintzen, R. J. (1985). Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: Language and psychological profiles. Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology, 5, 259-266.

Goldmuntz, E. (2005). DiGeorge syndrome: New insights. Clinics in Perinatology, 32 (4), 963-978.

Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M., Dikkers, F.G., Robinson, P.H., & Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S. (2003). Specific language impairment in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: Four case studies. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 40 (2): 190-195.

Kates, W. R. et al. (2007). The neural correlates of non-spatial working memory in velocardiofacial syndrome ( 22q11.2 deletion syndrome). Neuropsychologia, 45, 263-273.

Kelly, B.D. (2002). Schizophrenia and velocardio-facial syndrome. Lancet, 360 (9334): 721.

Kok, L.L., & Solman, R.T. (1995). Velocardiofacial Syndrome – Learning difficulties and intervention. Journal of Medical Genetics, 32 (8): 612-618.

Lajiness-O'Neill, R., Beaulieu, I., Asamoah, A., et al. (2006). The neuropsychological phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS): Relationship to psychopathology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21 (2), 175-184.

Lajiness-O'Neill, R. et al. (2005). Memory and learning in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome:Evidence for ventral and dorsal stream disruption? Child Neuropsychology, 11, 55-71.

Lajiness-O'Neill, R.R., Beaulieu, I., Titus, J.B., Asamoah, A., Bigler, E.D., Bawle, E.V., & Pollack, R. (2005).  Memory and learning in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Evidence for ventral and dorsal stream disruption? Child Neuropsychology, 11 (1): 55-71.

Moss, E. M., Batshaw, M.L., Solot, C. B., Gerdes, M., McDonald-McGinn, D. M., Driscoll, D. A., Emanuel, B. S., Zackai, E. H., & Wang, P. P. (1999). Psychoeducational profile of the 22q11.2 microdeletion: A complex pattern. Journal of Pediatrics, 134, 193-198.

Moss, E. M., Wang, P. P., McGinn, D. M., Keating, T. B., Sugama,S., Driscott, D. A., Emanual, B. S., Batshaw, M.L., & Zackai, E. H. (August, 1998). Genetic insights into Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The cognitive and adaptive profiles of patients with a chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.

Murphy, K.C., Jones, L.A., & Owen, M.J. (1999). High rates of schizophrenia in adults with velocardio-facial syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56 (10): 940-945.

Murphy, K.C., & Owen, M.J. (2001). Velocardio-facial syndrome: A model for understanding the genetics and pathogenesis of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179: 397-402.

Niklasson, L., Rasmussen, P., Oskarsdottir, S., & Gillberg, C. (2001). Neuropsychiatric disordes in the 22q11 deletion syndrome. Genetics in Medicine, 3, 79-84.

Oskarsdottir, S., Belfrage, M., Sandstedt, E., Viggedal, G., & Uvebrant, P. (2005). Disabilities and cognition in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 47, 177-184.

Parissis, D., & Milonas, I . (2005). Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: An underestimated cause of neuropsychiatric impairment in adolescence.  Journal of Neurology, 252 (8): 989-990.

Scherer, N.J., D'Antonio, L.L., & Kalbfleisch, J.H. (1999). Early speech and language development in children with velocardiofacial syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 88 (6): 714 -723.

Scherer, N.J., D’Antonio, L.L., & Rodgers, J.R. (2001). Profiles of communication disorder in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: Comparison to children with Down syndrome. Genetics in Medicine, 3 (1): 72-78.

Simon, T.J., Bearden, C.E., Mc-Ginn, D.M., & Zackai, E . (2005). Visuospatial and numerical cognitive deficits in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.  Cortex, 41 (2): 145-155.

Sobin, C. et al. (2005). Neuropsychological characteristics of children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome: A descriptive analysis. Child Neuropsychology, 11, 39-53.

Sobin, C., Kiley-Brabeck, K., Daniels, S., Blundell, M., Anyane-Yeboa, K., & Karayiorgou, M. (2004). Networks of attention in children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26 (2): 611-626.

Sobin, C., Kiley-Brabeck, K., Daniels, S., Khuri, J., Taylor, L., Blundell, M., Anyane-Yeboa, K., & Karayiorgou, M. (2005). Neuropsychological characteristics of children with the 22q11 deletion syndrome: A descriptive analysis. Child Neuropsychology, 11 (1): 39-53.

Solot, C.B., Gerdes, M., Kirschner, R.E., McDonald-McGinn, D.M., Moss, E., Woodin, M., Aleman, D., Zackai, E.H., & Wang, P. (2001). Communication issues in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: Children at risk. Genetics in Medicine, 3 (1): 67-71.

Stevens, A.F., Campbell, L.E., Morris, R., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Simonoff, E., Owen, M.J., Murphy, D.G., & Murphy, K.C. (2005). Psychiatric profile of children with velocardio-facial syndrome (VCFS). American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 138B (1): 114.

Stiers, P. et al. (2005). Atypical neuropsychological profile in a boy with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 11, 87-108.

Stiers, P., Swillen, A., De Smedt, B., Lagae, L., Devriendt, K., D'Agostino, E., Sunaert, S., & Fryns, J.P. (2005). Atypical neuropsychological profile in a boy with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 11 (1): 87-108.

Swillen, A., Devriendt, K., Legius, E., Eyskens, B., Dumoulin, M., Gewillig, M., & Fryns, J-P. (1997). Intelligence and psychosocial adjustment in velocardiofacial syndrome: A study of 37 children and adolescents with FCFS. Journal of Medical Genetics, 34, 453-458.

van Amelsvoort, T., Henry, J.C., Morris, R.G., Owen, M.J., Linszen, D.H., Murphy, K.C., & Murphy, D.G. (2003). Cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia in adults with velocardio-facial syndrome. Schizophrenia Research, 60 (1): 91, Suppl. S.

van Amelsvoort, T., Henry, J., Morris, R., Owen, M., Murphy, K., & Murphy, D. (2003). Neuropsychological functioning in adults with velocardio-facial syndrome with and without schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 53 (8): 60S-61S ,171 Suppl. S.

Vogels, A., & Fryns, J.P. (2002). The Velocardiofacial syndrome: A review. Genetic Counselling, 13(2), 106-113.

Wang, P. P., Solot, C., Moss, E. M., Gerdes, M., McDonald-McGinn, D. M., Driscoll, D. A., Emanuel, B. S., & Zackai, E. H. (August, 1998). Developmental presentation of 22q11.2 deletion (DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome). Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 342-345.

Woodwin, M., Wang, P.P., Aleman, D., McDonald-McGinn, D., Zackai, E., & Moss, E.(2001). Neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with 22q11.2 microdeletion. Genetics in Medicine, 3, 34-39.

Zinkstok,J., & van Amelsvoort,T. (2005). Neuropsychological profile and neuroimaging in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review. Child Neuropsychology, 11, 21-37.

 

Williams Syndrome

Anderson, P., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Williams syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 138-170). New York: Guilford Press.

Bellugi, U., Bihrle, A., Jernigan, T., Trauner, D., & Doherty, S. (1990). Neuropsychological, neurological, and neuroanatomical profile of Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Supplement 6, 115-125.

Braden, J.S., & Obrzut, J.E. (2002). Williams syndrome: Neuropsychological findings and implications for practice. Journal of Development and Physical Disabilities, 14, 203-213.

Dilts, C. V., Morris, C. A., & Leonard, C. O. (1990). Hypothesis for development of a behavioral phenotype in Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics Supplement 6, 126-131.

Don, A., Schellenberg, G., & Rourke, B. P. (1999). Music and language skills of children with Williams syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 5, 154-170.

Dykens, E.M. (2001). Intervention issues in persons with Williams syndrome. Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities, 4, 130-137.

Hammond, K. (1996). Frontal lobe dysfunction and Williams syndrome: A case presentation utilizing SPECT analysis. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 398.

Howlin, P., Davies, M., & Udwin, O. (1998). Cognitive functioning in adults with Williams syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 183-189.

Huang, L., Sadler, L., O’Riordan, M.A., & Robin, N.H. (2002). Delay in diagnosis of Williams syndrome. Clinical Pediatrics, 41, 257-261.

Jarrold, C., Baddeley A.D., & Hewes, A.K. (1998). Verbal and nonverbal abilities in the Williams syndrome phenotype: Evidence for diverging development trajectories. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 511-523.

Jarrold, C., Hartley, S.J., Phillips, C., & Baddeley, A.D. (2000). Word fluency in Williams syndrome: Evidence for unusual semantic organization? Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 5, 293-319.

Jernigan, T., & Bellugi, U. (1990). Anomalous brain morphology on magnetic resonance images in Williams syndrome and Down syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 47, 529-533.

Karmiloff-Smith, A., Tyler, L.K., Voice, K., Sims, K., Udwin, O., Howlin, P., & Davies, M. (1998). Linguistic dissociations in Williams syndrome: Evaluating receptive syntax in on-line and off-line tasks. Neuropsychologia, 36, 343-351.

Papaeliou, C. F. et al. (2011). Nonverbal communication, play, and language in Greek young children with Williams syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 17, 225-241.

MacDonald, G. W., & Roy, D. L. (1988). Williams syndrome: A neuropsychological profile. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10, 125-131.

Mervis, C. B. (2003). Williams syndrome:15 years of psychological research. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 1-12.

Mervis, C. B. , & Becerra, A. M. (2007). Language and communicative development in Williams syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 3-15.

Mervis, C. B. , & John, A. E. (2008). Vocabulary abilities of children with Williams syndrome: Strengths, weaknesses and relation to visuospatial construction ability. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 967-982.

Mervis, C.B., & Klein-Tasman, B.P. (2000). Williams syndrome: Cognition, personality, and adaptive behavior. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 6, 148-158.

Morris, C. A., & Mervis, C. B. (1999). Williams syndrome. In S. Goldstein & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (pp. 555-590). New York: Guilford Press.

O'Hearn, K., & Luna, B. (2009). Mathematical skills in Williams syndrome: Insight into the importance of underlying representations. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15, 11-20.

Pagon, R. A., Bennett, F. C., LaVeck, B., Stewart, K. B., & Johnson, J. (1987). Williams syndrome: Features in late childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics, 80, 85-91.

Pobert, B.R. & Dykens, E.M. (1996). Williams syndrome: An overview of medical, cognitive, and behavioral features. Mental Retardation, 5, 929-943.

Reiss, A. L., Feinstein, C., Rosenbaum, K. N., Borengasser-Caruso, M. A., & Goldsmith, B. M. (1985). Autism associated with Williams syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics, 106, 247-249.

Stojanovik, V., Perkins, M., & Howard S. (2001). Language and conversational abilities in Williams syndrome: How Good is Good? International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 36, 234-239.

Udwin, O., Davies, M., & Howlin, P. (1996). A longitudinal study of cognitive abilities and educational attainment in Williams syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 1020-1029.

Udwin, O., & Yule, W. (1990). Expressive language of children with Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Supplement 6, 108-114.

Udwin, O., & Yule, W. (1991). A cognitive and behavioural phenotype in Williams syndrome. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 232-244.

Wang, P. P., Doherty, S., Rourke, S. B., & Bellugi, U. (1995). Unique profile of visuo-perceptual skills in a genetic syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 29, 54-65.

 

De Lange Syndrome

Cossu, M. C., Nava, I., Leoni, S., & Piccardi, L (2005). Neuropsychological rehabilitation in a case of Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15, 147-160.

Tsatsanis, K. D., & Rourke, B. P. (1995b). de Lange syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities:Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 171-205). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Early Shunted Hydrocephalus, Spina Bifida, Chiari II Malformation

Barnes, M. A., & Dennis, M. (1992). Reading in children and adolescents after early onset hydrocephalus and in normally developing age peers: Phonological analysis, word recognition, word comprehension, and passage comprehension skill. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 17, 445-465.

Barnes, M. A., & Dennis, M. (1992). Inferencing and reading comprehension in children with hydrocephalus and in their age peers. Canadian Psychology, 33, 434.

Brookshire, B. L., Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Landry, S. H., Davidson, K. C., & Francis, D. J. (1995). Specific language deficiencies in children with early onset hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 106-117.

Dennis, M., & Barnes, M. A. (1992). Discourse in children with early hydrocephalus and in normally-developing age peers. Canadian Psychology, 33, 435.

Dennis, M., Fletcher, J. M., Rogers, T., Hetherington, R., & Francis D. J. (2002). Object-based and action-based visual perception in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 95-106.

Dennis, M, Sinopoli, K. J., Fletcher, J. M., & Schachar, R. (2008). Puppets, robots, critics, and actors within a taxonomy of developmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 673-690.

Donders, J., Canady, A. I., & Rourke, B. P. (1989). Psychometric intelligence after infantile hydrocephalus: A critical review and reinterpretation. Child's Nervous System, 6, 148-154.

Donders, J., Rourke, B. P., & Canady, A.I. (1991). Neuropsychological functioning of hydrocephalic children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 607-613.

Donders, J., Rourke, B. P., & Canady, A.I. (1992). Emotional adjustment of children with hydrocephalus and of their parents. Journal of Child Neurology, 7, 375-380.

Erickson, K., Baron, I. S., & Fantie, B. D. (2001). Neuropsychological functioning in early hydrocephalus: Review from a developmental perspective. Child Neuropsychology, 7(4), 199-229.

Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M., Beaver, S. R., Thorstad, K., Brookshire, B. L. Francis, D. J., Davidson, K. C., & Thompson, N. M. (1993). Relationships of cognitive skills and cerebral white matter in hydrocephalic children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 40-41.

Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M. E., Brookshire, B. L., Beaver, S. R., Francis, D. J., Davidson, K. C., Thompson, N. M., & Miner, M. E. (1992). Cerebral white matter and cognition in hydrocephalic children. Archives of Neurology, 49, 818-825.

Fletcher, J. M., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M., Kramer, L. A., Brookshire, B. L., Thorstad, K., Davidson, K. C., Francis, D. J., McCauley, S., & Baumgartner, J. E. (1996). Morphometric evaluation of the hydrocephalic brain: Relationships with cognitive development. Child’s Nervous System, 12, 192-199.

Fletcher, J. M., Brookshire, B. L., Bohan, T. P., Brandt, M., & Davidson, K. (1995). Early hydrocephalus. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 206-238 ). New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Brookshire, B. L., Landry, S. H., Bohan, T. P., Davidson, K. C., Francis, D. J., Thompson, N. M., & Miner, M. E. (1995). Behavioral adjustment of children with hydrocephalus: Relationships with etiology, neurological, and family status. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 765-781.

Fletcher, J. M., Dennis, M., & Northrup, H. (2000). Hydrocephalus. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 25-46). New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Francis, D. J., Thompson, N. M., Brookshire, B. L., Bohan, T. P., Landry, S. H., Davidson, K. C., & Miner, M. E. (1992). Verbal and nonverbal skill discrepancies in hydrocephalic children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 593-609.

Fletcher, J. M., McCauley, S., Brandt, M., Bohan, T. P., Kramer, L. A., Francis, D. J., Thorstad, K., & Brookshire, B. L. (1996). Regional brain tissue composition in children with hydrocephalus: Relationships with cognitive development. Archives of Neurology, 53, 549-557

Hasan, K. M., Eluvathingal T. J., Kramer, L. A., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Dennis, M., & Fletcher J. M. (2008). White matter microstructural abnormalities in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus: A diffusion tensor tractography study of the association pathways. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 27, 700-709.

Hetherington, C. R., & Dennis, M. (1996). Motor function in children with early-onset hydrocephalus. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 325.

Holler, K. A., Fennell, E. B., Crosson, B., Boggs, S. R., & Mickle, J. P. (1995). Neuropsychological and adaptive functioning in younger versus older children shunted for early hydrocephalus. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 63-73.

Juranek, J. , Fletcher, J. M., Hasan, K. M., Breier, J. I., Cirino, P. T., Pazo-Alvarez, P. P., Diaz, J. D., Ewing-Cobbs, L., Dennis, M., Papanicolaoua, A. (2008). Neocortical reorganization in spina bifida. Neuroimage, 40, 1516-1522.

Landry, S. H., Robinson, S. S., Copelend, D., & Garner, P. W. (1993). Goal-directed behavior and perception of self-competence in children with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 18, 389-396.

Miller, E., Widjaja, E., Blaser, S., Dennis, M., & Raybaud, C.(2008). The old and the new: Supratentorial MR findings in Chiari II malformation. Childs Nervous System, 24, 563-575.

Powers, C. H., & Range, L. M. (1990). Hydrocephalic, dyseidetic, dyslexic, and low- average regular class children: Intellectual, visual-perceptual, and spatial reasoning performance. Children's Health Care, 19, 106-111.

Tarazi, R. A., Zabel, T. A., & Mahone, E. M. (2008). Age-related differences in executive function among children with spina bifida/hydrocephalus based on parent behavior. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 585-602.

Thompson, N. M., Fletcher, J. M., Chapieski, L., Landry, S. H., Miner, M. E., & Bixby, J. (1991). Cognitive and motor abilities in preschool hydrocephalics. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 245-258.

Wills, K. E. (1993). Neuropsychological functioning in children with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 247-265.

Wills, K. E., Holmbeck, G. N., Dillon, K., & McLone, D. G. (1990). Intelligence and achievement in children with myelomeningocele. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 15, 161-176.

Yeates, K. O., Harris, J., Kiefel, J., Lassiter, K., Loss, N., & Enrile, B. (1996). Narrative discourse and prose memory in children with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 330.

 

Turner Syndrome (especially 45, X)

Birch, D. B., & Bender, B. G. (2000). Turner syndrome. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 252-274). New York: Guilford Press.

Downey, J., Elkin, E. J., Ehrhardt, A. A., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Bell, J. J., & Morishima, A. (1991). Cognitive ability and everyday functioning in women with Turner syndrome. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 32-39.

Mazzocco, J. J. (1998). A process approach to describing mathematics difficulties in girls with Turner syndrome. Pediatrics, 102, 492-494.

McCauley, E. (1990). Disorders of sexual differentatiation and development. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 37, 1405-1420.

McCauley, E., Kay, T., Ito, J., & Treder, R. (1987). The Turner syndrome: Cognitive deficits, affective discrimination, and behavior problems. Child Development, 58, 464-473.

McGlone, J. (1985). Can spatial deficits in Turner's syndrome be explained by focal CNS dysfunction or atypical speech lateralization? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 7, 375-394.

Pennington, B. F., Heaton, R. K., Karzmark, P., Pendleton, M.G., Lehman, R., & Shucard, D. W. (1985). The neuropsychological phenotype in Turner sydnrome. Cortex, 21, 391-404.

Powell, M. P., & Schulte, T. (1999). Turner sydrome. In S. Goldstein & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (pp. 277-297). New York: Guilford Press.

Romans, S. M., Roeltgen, D. P., Kushner, H., & Ross, J. L. (1996). Executive function in females with Turner syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 442.

Ross, J., Zinn, A., & McCauley, E. (2000). Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner Syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6, 135-141.

Rovet, J. F. (1990). The cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of females with Turner syndrome. In D. B. Berch & B. G. Berger (Eds.), Sex chromosome abnormalities and human behavior (pp. 38-77). Boulder, CO: Westview.

Rovet, J. F. (1993). The psychoeducational characteristics of children with Turner Syndrome. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 333-341.

Rovet, J. (1995b). Turner syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities:Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 351-371). New York: Guilford Press.

Rovet, J. F., & Netley, C. (1982). Processing deficits in Turner's syndrome. Developmental Psychology, 18, 77-94.

Williams, J. K., Richman, L., & Yarbrough, D. (1991). A comparison of memory and attention in Turner syndrome and learning disability. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 16, 585-593.

Williams, J. K., Richman, L., & Yarbrough, D. (1992). Comparison of visual spatial performance strategy training in children with Turner syndrome and learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 658-664.

 

Fragile-X Syndrome (High Functioning)

Berry-Kravis, E., Grossman, A.W., Crnic, L.S., and Greenough, W.T. (2002). Understanding Fragile X Syndrome. Current Pediatrics, 12, 316-324.

Crowe, S. F., & Hay, D. A. (1990). Neuropsychological dimensions of the fragile X syndrome: Support for a non-dominant hemisphere dysfunction hypothesis. Neuropsychologia, 28, 9-16.

Franke, P., Barbe, B., Leboyer, M., and Maier, W. (1996). Fragile X Syndrome. II. Cognitive and Behavioral Correlates of Mutations of the FMR-1 Gene. European Psychiatry, 11, 233-243.

Goldson, E. and Hagerman, R.J. (1992). The Fragile X Syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 822-832.

Hinton, V.J., Halperin, J.M., Dobkin, C.S., Ding, X.H., Brown, W.T., & Miezejeski, C.M. (1995). Cognitive and molecular aspects of Fragile X. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 518-528.

 

46,XX,del (17)(p12p13.1)

Steele, D. L., Chisholm, A. K., McGhie,J.D. R., Gardner, R. J. M., Scheffer, I. E., Slater, H. R. & Dawson, G.(2005). Superior verbal ability and nonverbal learning disability in a child with a novel 17p12p13.1 deletion. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 134B, 104-109.

 

Triple-X Syndrome

Ryan, T. V., Crews, Jr., W. D., Cowan, L., Goering, A. M., & Barth, J. T. (1998). A case of Triple X syndrome manifesting with the syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 225-232.

Woodhouse, W.J., Holland, A.J., McLean, G., and Reveley, A.M. (1992). The Association Between Triple X and Psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 106, 554-557.

 

Significant Damage or Dysfunction of the Right Cerebral Hemisphere

Rourke, B. P., Bakker, D. J., Fisk, J. L., & Strang, J. D. (1983). Child neuropsychology: An introduction to theory, research, and clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press. (pp. 230-253)

 

Sotos Sydrome

Dool, C. B., Fuerst, K. B., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Sotos syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations. New York: Guilford Press.

 

Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

Jacobson, L., Ek, U., Fernell, E., Flodmark, O., & Broberger, U. (1996). Visual impairment in preterm children with periventricular leukomalacia: Visual, cognitive, and neuropediatric characteristics related to cerebral imaging. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 724-735.

Leviton, A., & Gilles, F. (1996). Ventriculomegaly, delayed myelination, white matter hypoplasia, and periventricular leukomalacia: How are they related? Pediatric Neurology, 15, 127-136.

Woods, S.P., Weinborn, M., Ball, J.D., Tiller-Nevin, S., & Pickett, T.C. (2000). Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL): An identical twin case study illustration of white matter dysfunction and nonverbal learning disability (NLD). Child Neuropsychology, 6, 274-285.

 

Kabuki Syndrome

Mervis, C. B., Becerra, A. M., Rowe, M. L., Hersh, J. H., & Morris, C. A. (2005). Intellectual abilities and adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with Kabuki syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 132A, 248-255.

Sanz, J. H., Lipkin, P., Rosenbaum, K., & Mahone, E. M. (2010). Developmental profile and trajectory of neuropsychological skills in a child with Kabuki Syndrome: Implications for assessment of syndromes associated with intellectual disability. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24, pp. 1181-1192.

Van der Vlugt, H., Berndsen-Peeters, K., Curfs, L., & Schrander-Stumpel, C. (2002). Assessment profile in the Kabuki Syndrome. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 190.

 

LEVEL 2

Prophylactic Treatment For Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (& Other Cancers)

Note: Prophylactic treatment, of course, is not a form of neurological disease. It is included at Level 2 because children who are long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and who have received very high doses of whole brain cranial irradiation (which, unfortunately, can damage white matter) and some other types of therapies frequently exhibit a considerable majority of the NLD assets and deficits.

Buono, L. A., Morris, M. K., Morris, R. D., Krawiecki, N., Norris, F. H., Foster, M. A., & Copeland, D. R. (1998). Evidence for the syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities in children with brain tumors. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 144-157.

Constine, L. S. (1991). Late effects of radiation therapy. Pediatrician, 18, 37-48.

Copeland, D. R., Fletcher, J. M., Pfefferbaum-Levine, B., Jaffe, M., Reid, H., & Maor, M. (1985). Neuropsychological sequellae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors. Pediatrics, 75, 745-753.

Elkin, T. D., Mulhern, R. M., Reddick, W. E., & Kronenberg, M.E. (1996). Childhood medulloblastoma: White matter volumes and intellect. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 387-388.

Fisk, J. L., & Del Dotto, J. E. (1990). Neuropsychological sequelae of brain tumors. Henry Ford Hospital Medical Journal, 38, 213-218.

Fletcher, J. M., & Copeland, D. R. (1988). Neurobehavioral effects of central nervous system prophylactic treatment of cancer in children. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 10, 495-537.

Gamis, A. S., & Nesbit, M. E. (1991). Neuropsychologic (cognitive) disabilities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatrician, 18, 11-19.

Lesnik, P. G., Ciesielski, K. T., Hart, B. L., Benzel, E. C., & Sanders, J. A. (1998). Evidence for cerebellar-frontal subsystem changes in children treated with intrathecal chemotherapy for leukemia: Enhanced data analysis using an effect size model. Archives of Neurology, 52, 1561-1568.

Morris, R. D., Krawiecki, N. S., Kullgren, K. A., Ingram, S. M., & Kurzynski,B. (2000). Brain tumours. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 74-91). New York, Guilford Press.

Peckham, V. C. (1991). Educational deficits in survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatrician, 18, 25-31.

Pedersen, H., & Clausen, N. (1981). The development of cerebral CT changes during treatment of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia in childhood. Neuroradiology, 22, 79-84.

Picard, E. M., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Neuropsychological consequences of prophylactic treatment for acute lymphocytic leukaemia. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 282-330). New York: Guilford Press.

Taylor, H. G., Albo, V. C., Phebus, C. K., Sachs, B. R., & Bierl, P. G. (1987). Postirradiation treatment outcomes for children with acute lymphocytic leukemia: Clarification of risks. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 12, 395-411.

Waber, D. P., & Mullenix, P. J. (2000). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 300-319). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (early in disease progression)

Dool, C. B., Fuerst, K. B., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Metachromatic leukodystrophy. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 331-350). New York: Guilford Press.

Shapiro, E. G., & Balthazor, M. (2000). Metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 171-205). New York: Guilford Press.

Shapiro, E. G., Lipton, M., & Krivit, W. (1989). Neuropsychological findings in a case of metachromatic leukodystrophy treated with bone marrow transplant. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 21.

Shapiro, E. G., & Krivit, W. (1992). Adrenoleukodystrophy, a white matter degenerative disease of childhood: Neuropsychological characteristics and treatment with bone marrow transplantation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 69-70.

Shapiro, E. G., Lipton, M. E., & Krivit, W. (1992). White matter dysfunction and its neuropsychological correlates: A longitudinal study of a case of metachromatic leukodystrophy treated with bone marrow transplant. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 610-624.

Weber, A. M., McKellop, J. M., Gyato, K., Sullivan, T., & D. N. Franz. (1998). Metachromatic leukodystrophy and nonverbal learning disability: Neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings in heterozygosity and pseudodeficiecy. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Soceity, 4, 42.

Congenital Hypothyroidism

Alves, C., Eldson, M., Engle, H., Sheldon, J., & Cleveland, W. W. (1989). Changes in brain maturation detected by magnetic resonance imaging in congenital hypothyroidism. Journal of Pediatrics, 115, 600-603.

Heyerdahl, S., Kase, B. F., & Lie, S. O. (1991). Intellectual development in children with congenital hypothyroidism in relation to recommended thyroxine treatment. Journal of Pediatrics, 118, 850-857.

Rovet, J. F. (1990). Congenital hypothyroidism: Intellectual and neuropsychological functioning. In C. S. Holmes (Ed.), Psychoneuroendocrinology: Brain, behavior, and hormonal interactions (pp. 273-322). New York: Springer Verlag.

Rovet, J. F. (1991). Learning disabilities profiles in four endocrine disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 58-59.

Rovet, J. (1995a). Congential hypothyroidism. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 255-281) New York: Guilford Press.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., & Sorbara, D. L. (1987). Intellectual outcome in children with fetal hypothyroidism. Implications for neonatal diagnosis. Journal of Pediatrics, 110, 700-704.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., & Sorbara, D. L. (1989). Effect of thyroid hormone level on temperament in infants with congenital hypothyroidism detected by screening of neonates. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 63-68.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., & Sorbara, D. L. (1992). Neurodevelopment in infants and preschool children with congenital hypothyroidism: Etiological and treatment factors affecting outcome. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 17, 187-213.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., Sorbara, D. L., & Czuchta, D. A. (1990). The psychoeducational characteristics of hypothyroid children identified by newborn screening. In H. B. Bradford, W. H. Hannon, & B. L. Therrell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th national neonatal screening symposium (pp. 212-215). Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., Sorbara, D. L., & Czuchta, D. A. (1991). Thyroid hormone and the developing brain: Psychoeducational characteristics of children with thyroid hormone deficiency. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 79.

 

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (High Functioning)

Barr, H. M., Streissguth, A. P., Darby, B. L., & Sampson, (1990). Prenatal exposure to alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and aspirin: Effects on fine and gross motor performance in 4-year-old children. Developmental Psychology, 26, 339-348.

Don, A., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Fetal alcohol syndrome. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 372-406). New York: Guilford Press.

Mattson, S.N., & Riley, E.P. (1998). A review of the neurobehavioral deficits in children with fetal alcohol syndrome or prenatal exposure to alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(2), 279-294.

Streissguth, A. P., Aase, J. M., Clarren, S. K., Randels, S. P., LaDue, R. A., & Smith, D. F. (1991). Fetal alcohol syndrome in adolescents and adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265, 1961-1967.

Streissguth, A. P., & LaDue, R. A., (1987). Fetal alcohol syndrome: Teratogenic causes of developmental disabilities. In S. R. Schroeder (Ed.), Toxic substances and mental retardation: Neurobehavioral toxicology and teratology (pp. 1-32). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency.

Thomas, S.E., Kelly, S.J., Mattson, S.N., & Riley, E.P. (1998). Comparison of social abilities of children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those of children with similar IQ scores and normal controls. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(2), 528-533.

Uecker, A., & Nadel, L. (1996). Spatial locations gone awry: Object and spatial memory deficits in children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 34(3), 209-223.



LEVEL 3

Multiple Sclerosis (Early to Middle Stages)

White, R. F., & Krengel, M. (1995a). Multiple sclerosis. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 407-432). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Traumatic Brain Injury (Diffuse White Matter Perturbations)

Ewing-Cobbs, L., Fletcher, J. M., & Levin, H. S. (1987). Neuropsychological sequelae following pediatric head injury. In M. Ylvisaker (Ed.), Head injury rehabilitation: Children and adolescents (pp. 71-89). San Diego: College-Hill Press.

Ewing-Cobbs, L., Fletcher, J. M., & Levin, H. S. (1995). Traumatic brain injury. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 433-459). New York: Guilford Press.

Ewing-Cobbs, L. Fletcher, J. M., Levin, H. S., & Boudousquie, A. (1993). Nonverbal learning disabilities in children and adolescents following closed-head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 41.

Fletcher, J. M., & Levin, H. (1988). Neurobehavioral effects of brain injury in children. In D. K. Routh (Ed.). Handbook of pediatric psychology. (pp. 258-295). New York: Guilford Press.

Fletcher, J. M., Miner, M. E., & Ewing-Cobbs, L. (1987). Age and recovery from head injury in children: Developmental issues. In H. S. Levin, J. Grafman, & H. M. Eisenberg (Eds.), Neurobehavioral recovery from head injury. (pp. 279-291). New York: Oxford University Press.

Shapiro, E. G., Lai, Z., Kriel, R. L., & Krach, L. (1992). Processing of facial, gestural, and prosodic information in adolescents with closed head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 114.

Yeates, K. O. (2000). Closed head injury. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 92-116). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Toxicant-Induced Encephalopathy and Teratology

Dietrich, K. N. (2000). Environmental neurotoxicants and psychological development. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 206-234). New York: Guilford Press.

Magee, L. A., Nulman, I., Rovet, J. F., & Koren, G. (1999). Neurodevelopment after in utero amiodarone exposure. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 21, 261-265.

White, R. F., Feldman, R. G., Moss, M. B., & Proctor, S. P. (1993). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurobehavioral tesing, and toxic encephalopathy: Two cases. Environmental Research, 61, 117-123.

White, R. F., & Krengel, M. (1995). Toxicant-induced encephalopathy. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 460-475). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Children with HIV and Significant White Matter Pathology

Brouwers, P., van der Vlugt, H, Moss, H., Wolters, P., & Pizzo, P. (1995). White matter changes on CT brain scan are associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with symptomatic HIV disease. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 93-105.

Pulsifer, M. B., & Aylward, E. H. (2000). Human immunodeficiency virus. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 381-402). New York: Guilford Press.

 

Haemophilus influenzae meningitis

Anderson, V., & Taylor, H. G. (2000). Meningitis. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 117-148). New York: Guilford Press.

Taylor, H. G., Michaels, R. H., Mazur, P. M., Bauer, R. E., & Liden, C. B. (1984). Intellectual, neuropsychological, and achievement outcomes in children six to eight years after recovery from Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Pediatrics, 74, 198-205.

Taylor, H. G., Mills, E. L., Ciampi, A., Du Berger, R., Watters, G. V., Gold, R., MacDonald, N., & Michaels, R. H. (1990). The sequelae of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in school-age children. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1657-1663.

Taylor, H. G., Schatschneider, C., & Rich, D. (1992). Sequelae of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis: Implications for the study of brain disease and development. In M. G. Tramontana & S. R. Hooper (Eds.), Advances in child neuropsychology (Vol. 1, pp. 50-108). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Taylor, H.G., Schatschneider, C., & Minich, N.M. (2000). Longitudinal outcomes of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in school-age children. Neuropsychology, 14, 509-518.

 

Early-Treated Phenylketonuria

Faust, D., Libon, D., & Pueschel, S. (1986-87). Neuropsychological functioning in treated phenylketonuria. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 16, 169-177.

Gourovitch, M. L., Craft, S., Bowton, S. B., Ambrose, P., & Sparta, S. (1994). Interhemispheric transfer in children with early-treated phenylketonuria. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 393-404.

Koff, E., Boyle, P., & Pueschel, S. (1977). Perceptual-motor functioning in children with phenylketonuria. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 131, 1084-1087.

Mazzocco, M. M., Nord, A. M., Van Doorninck, W., Greene, C. L., Kovar, C. G., & Pennington, B. F. (1994). Cognitive development among children with early-treated phenylketonuria. Developmental Neuropsychology, 10, 133-151.

Pennington, B. F., van Doornink, W. J., McCabe, L. L., & McCabe, E. R. B. (1985). Neurological deficits in early-treated phyenylketonurics. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 467-474.

Waisbren, S. E. (1999). Phenylketonuria. In S. Goldstein & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (433-458). New York: Guilford Press.

Welsh, M. C., & Pennington, B. F. (2000). In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 275-299). New York: Guilford Press.

Welsh, M. C., Pennington, B. F., Rouse, B., & McCabe, E. R. B. (1990). Neuropsychology of early-treated phenylketonuria: Specific executive function deficits. Child Development, 61, 1697-1713.

 

Intraventricular Hemorrhage (Early)

Landry, S. H., Fletcher, J. M., & Denson, S. E. (1993). Longitudinal outcome for low birth weight infants: Effects of intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 205-218.

Selzer, S. C., Lindgren, S. D., & Blackman, J. A. (1992). Long-term neuropsychological outcome of high risk infants with intracranial hemorrhage. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 17, 407-422.

 

Children with Cardiac Disease Treated with ECMO

Tindall, S., Rothermel, R. R., Delamater, A., Pinsky, W., & Klein, M. D. (1999). Neuropsychological abilities of children with cardiac disease treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 15, 101-115.

 

Children of very low birth weight (<1500 gm)

Special Issue: The consequences of being born very early or very small. (2011). Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 1-135.

Litt, J., Taylor, H.G., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2005). Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: Prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interventions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 130-141.

Picard, E. M., Del Dotto, J. E., & Breslau, N. (2000). Very low birth weight. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 275-299). New York: Guilford Press.

Taylor, H. G., Hack, M., Klein, N., & Schatschneider, C. (1995). Achievement of <750 gm birthweight children with normal cognitive abilities: Evidence for specific learning problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 703-719.

Taylor, H.G., Minich, N., Bangert, B., Filipek, P.A., & Hack, M. (2004). Long-term neuropsychological outcomes of very low birth weight: Associations with early risks for periventricular brain insults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 987-1004.

Taylor, H.G., Minich, N.M., Klein, N., & Hack, M. (2004). Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: Neuropsychological findings. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 149-163.

 

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Nass, R. Speiser, P., Heier, L., Haimes, A., & New, M. (1990). White matter abnormalities in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Annals of Neurology, 28, 470.

 

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Rovet, J. F. (1991). Learning disabilities profiles in four endocrine disorders. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 58-59.

Rovet, J. F. (2000). Diabetes. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 336-365). New York: Guilford Press.

Rovet, J. F., Ehrlich, R. M., Czuchta, D., & Akler, M. (1994). Psychoeducational characteristics of children and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27,

 

Noonan Syndrome

Ghaziuddin, M., Bolyard, B., & Alessi, N. (1994). Autistic Disorder in Noonan Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 38(1), 67-72.

Mahendran, R., & Aw, S. C. (1989). Noonan’s syndrome with mental retardation presenting with an affective disorder—case report. Singapore Medical Journal, 30(3), 306-307.

Teeter, P. A. (1999). Noonan syndrome. In S. Goldstein & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (pp. 337-349). New York: Guilford Press.

Troyer, A. K., & Joschko, M. (1997). Cognitive characteristics associated with Noonan Syndrome: Two case reports. Child Neuropsychology, 3, 199-205.

Verhoeven, W. M., Hendrikx, J. L., MDoorakkers, M. C., Egger, J. I., Van der Burgt, I., & Tuinier, S. (2004). Alexithymia in Noonan Syndrome. Genetic Counseling, 15(1), 47-52.

Wood, A., Massarano, A., Super, M., & Harrington, R. (1995). Behavioural aspects and psychiatric findings in Noonan’s syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 72(2), 153-155.

 

Fahr’s Sydrome

Blackburn, L. B. (1996). Neurodevelopmental course in pediatric onset progressive calcification of the basal ganglion: A case report. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 369-370

 

LEVEL 4: AMBIGUOUS WITH RESPECT TO NLD

 

Neurofibromatosis 1

Bawden, H, Dooley, J., Buckley, D., Camfield, P. Gordon, K. Riding, M., & Llewellyn, G. (1996). MRI and nonverbal cognitive deficits in children with Neurofibromatosis 1. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18, 784-792.

Dilts, C., Carey, J., Kircher, J., Hoffman, R., Creel, D., Ward, K., Clark, E., & Leonard, C. (1996) Children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis 1: A behavioral phenotype. Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatric, 17, 229-241.

Eliason, M. J. (1986). Neurofibromatosis: Implications for learning and behavior. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 7, 175-179.

Kayl, A.E., & Moore, B.D. (2000). Behavioral phenotype of neurofibromatosis, Type1.Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 6, 117-124.

Moore, B. D. III, & Denckla, M. B. (2000). Neurofibromatosis. In K. O. Yeates, R. D. Ris, & H. G. Taylor (Eds.). Pediatric neuropsychology: Research, theory, and practice (pp. 149-170). New York: Guilford Press.

Nilsson, D. E., & Bradford, L. W. (1999). Neurofibromatosis. In S. Goldstein & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.). Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (pp. 350-367). New York: Guilford Press.

North, K. N., Joy, P., Yuille, D., Cocks, N., Mobbs, E., Hutchings, P., McHugh, K., & de Silva, M. (1994). Specific learning disability in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: Significance of MRI abnormalities, Neurology, 44, 878-883.

North, K. N., Riccardi, V., Samango-Sprouse, C., Ferner, R., Moore, B., Legius, E., Ratner, N., & Denckla, M.B. (1997). Cognitive function and academic performance in neurofibromatosis 1: Consensus statement from the NR1 Cognitive Disorder Task Force, Neurology, 48, 1121-1127.

 

Osteochondromatosis & Klippel-Trenaunay Syndromes

Lajiness-O'Neill, R., & Beaulieu, I. (2002). Neuropsychological findings in two children diagnosed with hamartoses: Evidence of a NLD phenotypic profile. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 27-40.

 

 

Some Similarities with NLD, but Basically Different

Tourette Syndrome

Bornstein, R. A. (1990). Neuropsychological performance in children with Tourette’s Syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 33, 73-81.

Brookshire, B., Butler, I. J., Ewing-Cobbs, L., & Fletcher, J. M. (1994). Neuropsychological characteristics of children with Tourette syndrome: Evidence for a nonverbal learning disability? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 289-302.

Yeates, K. O., & Bornstein, R. A. (1996). Psychosocial correlates of learning disability subtypes in children with Tourette’s syndrome. Child Neuropsychology, 2, 193-203.

 

Autism (High Functioning)

Courchesne, E., Lincoln, A. J., Townsend, J. P., James, H, E., Akshoomoff, N. A., Saitoh, O., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Egaas, B., Press, G. A., Haas, R. H., Murakami, J. W., & Schreibman, L. (1994). A new finding: Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. In S. Broman & J. Grafman (Eds.), Atypical cognitive deficits in developmental disorders: Implications for brain function (pp. 101-137). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). Validity and neuropsychological characterization of Asperger syndrome: Convergence with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1127-1140.

Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Muenz, L. R., & Payton, J. B. (1992). Neuropsychological functioning in non-mentally retarded autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 749-761.

Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Taylor, H. G., & Siegel, D. J. (1994). Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 671-680.

Volkmar, F. R., & Cohen, D. J. (1991). Nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatry, 2, 1-12.

(Notes: Tourette syndrome (TS) is one example of a neurological disorder wherein several of the NLD manifestations are evident. However, there are many basic differences that suggest strongly that TS is not a syndrome that should be considered within the group of neurological disorders that can be characterized in terms of the NLD spectrum (Brookshire et al., 1994). A similar state of affairs obtains with respect to "high functioning" autism (Klin et al., 1995).

 

Difficult to Classify

Cerebral Palsies of Perinatal Origin

(Note: Many children with cerebral palsy of perinatal origin exhibit a considerable majority of the NLD assets and deficits. However, because of the wide variety of etiologies and manifestations considered under this rubric, the classification by level of NLD manifestations is rendered problematic.)

 

White Matter Physiology And Pathology: Some References

Baum, K.A., Schulte, C., Girke, W., Reischies, F.M. & Felix, R. (1996). Incidental white- matter foci on MRI in “healthy” subjects: Evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction. Neuroradiology, 38, 755-760.

Bloemen, O. J. et al. (2010). White matter integrity in Asperger syndrome: A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study in adults. Autism Research, 3, 203-213.

Elkin, T. D., Mulhern, R. M., Reddick, W. E., & Kronenberg, M.E. (1996). Childhood medulloblastoma: White matter volumes and intellect. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 387-388.

Fuerst, K. B., & Rourke, B. P. (1995). White matter physiology and pathology. In B. P. Rourke (Ed.), Syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities: Neurodevelopmental manifestations (pp. 27-44). New York: Guilford Press.

Gravel, C., Sasseville, R., & Hawkes, R. (1990b). Maturation of the corpus callosum of the rat: I. Influence of thyroid horrmones on the number and maturation of axons. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 291, 147-161.

Thatcher, R. W. (1994). Cyclic cortical reogranization: Origins of human cognitive development. In G. Dawson & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain (pp. 232-266). New York: Guilford Press.

Thatcher, R. W. (1997). Neuroimaging of cyclic cortical reorganization during human development. In R. W. Thatcher (Ed.), Developmental neuroimaging: Mapping the development of brain and behavior (pp. 91-106). San Diego: Academic Press.

Valk, J., & van der Knaap, M. S. (1989). Magnetic resonance of myelin, melination, and myelin disorders. Berlin: Spreinger-Verlag.

van der Knapp, M. S., Valk, J., Bakker, C. J., Schvoneveld, M., Faber, J. A. J., Willemse, J., & Gooskens, R. H. J. M. (1991). Myelination as an expression of the functional integrity of the brain. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 849-857.

Webster, H. deF. (1993). Myelin injury and repair. In F. J. Seil (Ed.), Advances in neurology (Vol. 59, pp. 67-73). New York: Raven Press.

Woodward, L. J., Caron, A. C. C., Pritchard, V. E., Anderson, P. J., & Inder, T. E. (2011). Neonatal white matter abnormalities predict global executive function impairment in children born very preterm. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 22-41.